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April 1865 was an important month in American history. On April 9, the Union Army led by Robert E. Lee defeated Ulysses S. Grant’s Union forces, effectively ending the Civil War. Then 150 years ago today, on April 14, the victorious President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated. The Civil War is often called the Second American Revolution. This ended the scourge of slavery and strengthened the relative economic power of the North compared to the South. Here are 37 maps that explain the origins of the war, why the North won, and how the war changed the United States.
Civil War Map Union And Confederate States
If you don’t want to read more about the Civil War, this animation offers a nice brief summary of the battle. The Confederate Army took hold in 1861 and 1862, with the region moving back and forth in political conflict in the slave frontier states of Kentucky and Missouri. But as early as 1863, the Union began to conquer serious amounts of territory along the Mississippi, in Tennessee and along strategic coastlines of the Atlantic Coast. The Confederacy had no way of recovering militarily, but its range was still vast, and continuing the war until the south was completely overrun was a costly and difficult undertaking. The big question of the war was really whether the Union would want to pay for the victory or make a settlement. The issue was decided both on the battlefield and at the polling station, as William Sherman captured Atlanta in September 1864 and gave a major boost to Lincoln’s re-election, which sealed victory for the Union.
National Geographic: Battles Of The Civil War Wall Map (35.75 X 23.25 Inches) (national Geographic Reference Map): National Geographic Maps: 9781597750035: Amazon.com: Books
In the decades before the Civil War, the northern states enjoyed an increasing majority in the House of Representatives. But in the Senate, each state gets two votes, regardless of population. And from the 1800s to the 1850s, there were always at least as many slave states as there were free ones, giving the South an effective veto on slavery law. But America’s westward expansion threatened to upset the balance, as many states seeking access to the Union were not suitable for slave-holding plantations. The Missouri Compromise of 1820 temporarily preserved this balance by recognizing Missouri as a slave state. But in 1850 an attempt to document the conflict was unsuccessful. In the 1850s, fighting to allow slavery in the new states—Kansas in particular—began to tear the nation apart.
At the end of the Civil War, the abolition of slavery was a fairly popular position in the North. But a few decades ago it was considered a much more radical position. In 1840, the newly formed Liberty Party accepted Kentucky attorney James Birney as president; He got less than 7,000 votes. This map shows the results of Birney’s second presidential bid in 1844. He got 62,000 votes, or about 2 percent of the vote. Even in abolitionist strongholds such as Massachusetts and New Hampshire, Birney only received 8 percent of the vote. But over the next two decades, support for abolitionist ideas in the Arctic will grow.
It is impossible to make an accurate map of “Underground”, as it was not a literal railway. Rather, it was a network of anti-slavery activists that helped runaway slaves reach safety and freedom in the northern states or Canada. But this map shows some of the most popular routes for slaves to escape to freedom: traveling either along the Mississippi River or along the Northeast Corridor through Washington, D.C., Philadelphia, and New York. Part of the Compromise of 1850 was a stringent new runaway slave law that required officials in the northern states to help capture runaway slaves and return them to their masters. White northerners in abolitionist strongholds such as Boston sometimes organized crowds to defy the law, increasing tensions between the North and the South.
In the 1850s, as Kansas was about to be admitted as a new state, controversy erupted over whether it would be a slave state or a free state like neighboring Missouri. In the Kansas–Nebraska Act of 1854, Congress decided that this question would be decided by (white) voters from sparsely populated areas. Abolitionists began moving to Kansas, hoping to create an anti-slavery majority. Pro-slavery Missourians cross the border to cast illegal votes for the pro-slavery legislature in 1855. They also launched violent attacks on abolitionist settlers, which encouraged abolitionist retaliation. This betrayal and bloodshed radicalized the Northern electorate, forcing them to face aggressive measures to halt the expansion of slavery, even if it was against the South.
Slave States Vs. Free States, 2012
Abolitionist radical John Brown, a veteran of Kansas violence, developed a plan to attack a Confederate arsenal in Harpers Ferry, Virginia in 1859. Brown’s goal was to apportion the slaves on nearby plantations and encourage them to flee about the village and emancipation. Hand over more slaves. This plan was a complete failure. Some of the nearby slaves knew a raid was underway, and none of them were willing to risk their lives by taking up arms against their masters. When Brown let a train pass, he sounded the alarm. Soon Brown was surrounded by local militia and Confederate troops. After his capture, Brown enjoyed his role as a martyr and gave an anti-slavery speech after being convicted of treason and murder. Some abolitionists came to see Brown as a hero. But Southern parties were outraged by Brown’s actions, which added to the tension between the North and the South.
Yes, the Civil War was about slavery 7) The Industrial Revolution caused a cotton boom in the South
The early 1800s was a time of rapid advances in weaving technology. And as the textile industry expanded in Britain and New England, so did the demand for cotton. This fueled the economy of South America, where the hot, humid climate and fertile soil were suitable for cotton production. This map shows how the South reacted in the four decades before the Civil War. Cotton production spread and flourished from Texas to North Carolina and from Tennessee to Florida. In 1860, cotton accounted for 60 percent of America’s exports, and nearly all of that came from the South.
It’s no coincidence that this pair of playing cards looks like the cotton cards above. Large cotton plantations in the South relied heavily on slaves to plant and harvest cotton – so an increased demand for cotton meant an increased demand for slaves. At the same time, the trend was in the opposite direction to the north, where small farming and industrialization limited the value of slave labor. So the United States was sharply divided between the enslaved South and the free North.
File:us Secession Map 1861.svg
You sometimes hear the argument that the Civil War wasn’t really about slavery—but it was about other issues like states’ rights or excessive federal power. But if you look at which states – and which parts of the states – voted to secede, it becomes difficult to deny that slavery was a big factor. For example, in Tennessee, support for segregation was strongest in the West, where slave ownership was most common. People in mountainous East Tennessee, where slave ownership was rare, were less enthusiastic about the idea. Similarly, slavery was relatively rare in northern Alabama, and voters there voted against secession. In Virginia, slave ownership was rare in the mountain west, which resisted secession and became the separate state of West Virginia.
Every president elected before 1860 had at least some support in both the North and the South. But by 1860, the gap between north and south had become so great that no candidate or party could bridge it. The national parties that dominated American politics for decades were divided along political lines. The northern part of the Democratic Party nominated one candidate, while the southern Democrats nominated another. In the north, remnants of the inactive Whig Party joined with abolitionists to form the Republican Party, while Southern Whigs joined forces with the natives to form the Constitutional Union Party. The result was actually two separate presidential elections. In the north, Republican Abraham Lincoln (red) defeated Democrat Stephen Douglas (blue). In the South, John Breckinridge (green) defeated Constitutional Federalist John Bell (orange), a Southern Democrat.
Obviously, according to the Constitution, the United States of America can have only one president. This map shows why the winner of the northern states – Lincoln – became president, despite barely getting the vote in the slave states. Today, Florida, Texas, and California are the three largest states in the Union, but in 1860 they were so small that they hardly mattered politically. Instead, the three largest states were all to the north: New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio. Together they accounted for more than a quarter of the shares.
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