Us Map In 1860 – An 1860 United States Coast Survey map counted the number of slaves in each county of the United States. Library of Congress
In September 1861, the United States Coast Survey published a large map, about two feet by three feet, entitled Map Showing the Distribution of the Slave Population of the Southern States of the United States. Based on population statistics collected at the 1860 census and verified by the Census Bureau, the map shows the number of slaves in each county. At a glance, the viewer could see the vast scale of the economic system that enslaved nearly 4 million people: Slavery was concentrated along the Chesapeake Bay and eastern Virginia; along the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia; In the crescent of the countries of Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi; and especially in the Mississippi River Valley. Each county is marked with a precise percentage of slaves, making the map worth examining more closely.
Us Map In 1860
The Slave Coast Survey Map was one of many data-driven maps produced in 19th-century America. As historian Susan Schulten points out, this particular map was created from statistics collected by the federal Census. Abraham Lincoln consulted it during the Civil War. A banner on the map proclaims that it is being “sold for the benefit of the US Army’s sick and wounded soldiers.” Data mapping is a government tool as well as a new technology for representing knowledge.
North America Map 1860 Hi Res Stock Photography And Images
Although thematic cartography originated in the 19th century, the technique is still useful today for understanding history. One of history’s central problems is scale: how can historians switch between understanding the past in terms of one life and millions of lives? within cities and across continents; For days and centuries? Maps can’t tell us everything, but they can help, especially interactive web maps that zoom in and out, show more than one topic, and show changes over time.
To show the broader patterns of American slavery, I created an interactive map of slavery distribution. While the Coastal Survey map shows a single measure, the interactive map shows measures of slaves, free African Americans, all free people, and the entire United States, and by population density and percentage. the total population. The map ranges from the first census in 1790 to the 1860 census before the Civil War. You can explore the map yourself, but I’ve created animations below to highlight some key patterns.
Looking at all of these maps together, it is noteworthy that as the number of enslaved peoples in the United States increased from 1790 to 1860, peoples spread across the United States rather than being concentrated in the territories. where slavery is well established.
In the 1790s and 1800s, the number of slaves in the counties on the Atlantic coast was at an all-time high. (This is notable as many slaves fled to the British during the Revolutionary War.) Take Charleston County, South Carolina, for example. In 1790, 51,000 people were enslaved in this county. In 1840 the number of slaves peaked at 59,000; In 1860, 37,000 people were slaves, compared with just 63 percent two decades earlier.
File:united States Slavery Map 1860.jpg
However, slave numbers on the east coast grew slowly over time, though not at the rate of growth of free people in the north. The free white population of the north thrived in settlements and spread west.
The slave population was a different dynamic. It grew in intensity around the Chesapeake Bay until slavery was gradually abolished in the north. But for the most part, enslaved people spread west into lands opened up by the Louisiana Purchase, conquest of Native American nations in the Southeast, war with Mexico, and division of public lands. Slavery spread instead of growing because it was an agricultural form of capitalism rather than an industrial one, so it needed new land.
Slavery spread because enslaved African Americans were forced to move. Historian Stephen Dale estimates that “between 1820 and 1860 at least 875,000,000 American slaves were forcibly displaced from the Upper South to the Lower South”. A small portion of this migration was due to migration with people who were white planters. But Dale writes that “60 to 70 percent of these people were transported through the interregional slave trade.” In other words, slavery was not a parental institution created by apologists: it was a relentlessly exploitative system of master-slave relationships driven by markets. The continued spread of slavery created a political crisis that eventually led to civil war. As Abraham Lincoln said in his 1858 House Divided speech:
“Either slavery’s opponents will stop its further spread and place it where public opinion is, believing it will be abolished, or its advocates will promote it until it becomes uniform. It’s legal in all states, old and new. Both north and south.”
How The 1860 Us Election Went.
Below are two animations that compare slave population density and total population density (note that the scales are different).
This animation of slave density from 1790 to 1860 shows how slavery spread through adolescence.
Animation of total population density from 1790 to 1860. Note that population is also growing north and spreading west.
A second observation from this map is the widespread prevalence of slavery in the United States. In the early decades of the First Republic, the Northern states had large numbers of slaves, which were gradually reduced by Emancipation Acts. In the South, the enslaved population was unusually high: in most counties along the Mississippi River and over 70 percent of the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia.
Old Usa Map Civil War Civil War Map Secession.
A good way to see the importance of slavery is to look at a map of the entire free population: a negative photograph of slavery. If one considers the population density of all freedmen (1860), large parts of the south appear almost depopulated.
Finally, the dynamics of the free African American population were more similar to those of the free white population than that of the slave population. The free African American population settled primarily on the East Coast and primarily in urban areas of the northern United States. Free African Americans were almost completely excluded from the largely enslaved population of the Deep South by a patrol system. This animation shows free African Americans from 1790 to 1860.
This interactive map and the census data on which it is based do not reveal much of what is known about slavery. For example, the census did not count slaves in Vermont, which abolished slavery in the 1777 constitution. But as Harvey Amani Whitfield points out, some Vermont African Americans were enslaved. These cards have nothing to say about the pain of the whip or the flight to freedom, the hardship of the work, the preaching and the shouting in the congregation: you have to read a good story for that. But they give a great insight into the forced labor system that has made people “half slave and half free.”
(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012), writes about maps of slavery in chapter 4; see also the book’s companion page, which offers images of maps of slavery. Stephen Dale wrote a recent history of the domestic slave trade
Historic 1860 Map
(New York: Oxford University Press, 2005); The figures above are from page 289. Among the best stories of American slavery are: Walter Johnson in the Mississippi River Valley,
The data on my maps is from the 1790-1860 census collected by the Minnesota Population Center.
Lincoln Mullen is an American historian of religion. He is a graduate student at Brandeis University, writing a dissertation entitled Types of Religious Conversion: The Origins of Religious Choice in the United States. : AI: 1 year warranty, Classroom, Card brand: Kappa Card
Expansion of Railroads to 1860 History Wall Map throughout the East and Midwest and into the Western Territories, Dakota, Nebraska and Indian Territory of north Texas. These maps of the history of the United States are very valuable
Pl. 17a Antique Chart Of The Us Population 1860 By Walker, ‘1874’ For Sale At 1stdibs
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