Train Scale Chart – Invented in Britain at the height of the Industrial Revolution, the steam train gave the Empire an unrivaled advantage in transporting goods and people. It soon spread around the world as other countries sought to build their own rail networks to facilitate growth and trade.
But as countries rushed to build more railroads, they also tried to build faster trains. Japan’s Tōkaidō Shinkansen, or “bullet train,” was the first high-speed rail system in 1964 to reach speeds of more than 124 mph, or 200 km/h.
Train Scale Chart
While it’s fastest regular bullet trains (N700A Shinkansen) can reach a top speed of 186 mph or 300 km/h, the country’s new development of magnetic levitation (maglev) is breaking speed records.
Staying On Track
In fact, two of the fastest trains in the world are maglevs, which use two sets of magnets to lift and propel the train without friction to slow it down.
*Official name or title not yet given, so currently listed under manufacturer name: CRRC Qingdao Sifang.
The Japanese L0 series Maglev is still in production, but with a land speed record of 374 mph or 602 km/h, it is the fastest train in the world.
Japan faces stiff competition from China, which already has the world’s longest high-speed rail network and is investing heavily in infrastructure.
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In China, there is already a maglev train, Shanghai Maglev, which connects the city center with the international airport. The country’s latest train, unveiled in July 2021, recorded a land speed of 373 mph, or 600 km/h.
When it opened, the new Maglev train was announced as the fastest train in the world since it was in full production. However, until full operation actually begins, its test speed record is still below the L0 series.
In fact, China has half of the eight fastest trains in the world. Including Japan and South Korea, Asia accounts for most of the high-speed rail network and record speeds.
Although it is not only the dominance of maglev and Asia. Common electric trains in Europe also make the list, with France’s TGV POS and Italy’s Frecciarossa 1000 reaching 357 mph (575 km/h) and 245 mph (394 km/h), respectively.
Model Train Scales & Sizes Explained
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Data flow diagram. Civilian death toll from war in Ukraine Using UN data, this table shows the civilian death toll from Russia’s invasion of Ukraine.
Russia’s war of aggression in Ukraine has caused mass suffering and death, with many Russian attacks targeting civilians.
We created this image using data from the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) to better understand how many civilians have died in the war in Ukraine, as well as how many have been injured and how many are children.
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As of the beginning of December, it is reported that 6,755 people have died in Ukraine due to the war, of which 424 are children. Another 10,607 are injured, of which 781 are children. In total, more than 17,000 people were killed or injured.
The figures are difficult to ascertain, as different information is received from both Russia and Ukraine. The UN’s UNHCR expects these numbers to be even higher.
The war began on February 24, 2022, and less than a year later, millions of people have been displaced and thousands of civilians have been injured or killed in the conflict.
According to the United Nations, most of the civilian casualties came from large-scale explosives, such as heavy artillery bombardment, rockets and airstrikes, and were concentrated in Donetsk and Luhansk and other areas still held by Ukraine.
List Of Rail Transport Modelling Scale Standards
In addition, new estimates from Kiev report the death of nearly 13,000 Ukrainian servicemen or soldiers, which have not yet been confirmed by the military.
Source: UN High Commissioner for Human Rights monthly report on civilian deaths in Ukraine.
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Let’s clarify the terms SCALE and GAUGE, which are often confused but actually have very different meanings.
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There are several standard scales in the model railroading world, and there is no right or wrong when choosing a scale, although there are distinct advantages (as well as a few disadvantages) to each.
In fact, you will often see terms like HO gauge, N gauge, etc. Manufacturers don’t consider it “wrong”, much less accurate.
An example of why we would use a different track gauge is commonly found in HO where the HO model can work on different tracks. For example, if you model a narrow-gauge railway, the track will be smaller, but the scale will be the same.
Now that you are aware of some basic considerations, here is an overview of popular model railroad scales:
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Probably the most popular model train scale, HO corresponds to 1:87 scale. It is larger than N scale, which is also quite popular, but it can be used to create very realistic layouts without using up more space.
This simply means that all dimensions of a full-sized object (the “prototype”) are divided by 87. So the 87 models lined up will be the same length as the prototype. 87 assembled will match the height of the prototype.
HO is also known as 3.5mm scale. 3.5mm on a model represents 1 foot (12 inches) on a prototype or full size item. HO scale actually stands for Half O. HO trains run on 16.5mm gauge.
Generally only used for British prototype models. It is 1:76 or 4mm in foot scale. The trains continue to run on the same 16.5mm gauge as the HO models. OO models are slightly larger than HO, but the difference is usually not noticeable.
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Historically, the reason for this discrepancy is that HO was first introduced in Germany in the 1920s. Naturally, demand for models of the same size quickly reached the UK market. Due to narrower openings in tunnels, under bridges, platforms etc., British trains are not as tall or wide as many other standard rail systems. Consequently, there were difficulties in fitting the large engines of the time into the British models made in HO scale. So they were scaled up a bit to overcome this problem. This also made them more visibly compatible, in terms of size. Although the scale was larger than HO, the 16.5mm gauge was retained for compatibility.
Today, the scale is too well established to change. Several manufacturers have tried to introduce the British HO scale in the past, but have been unsuccessful. Some more experienced modelers, unhappy with the scale/gauge mismatch of the OO, have replaced the 16.5mm diameter and wheels with 18mm diameter and wheels. This is known as an EM meter. EM stands for eighteen millimeters. This is a specialized scale not commonly seen in Australia.
Pushing the accuracy of this scale to extremes, there are some modelers who choose to reduce all dimensions to 1:76 scale, especially wheel rims and switch edge tracks. This is known as P4 (ProtoFour). Gauge is about 18.83
Most OO scale manufacturers will cheat the gauge a bit to make the locomotives and rolling stock work on OO track.
Choosing A Model Railroad Scale & Gauge
At 1:160 scale, N scale is the second most popular option among model railroad enthusiasts. According to various Model Railroad Manufacturer sales surveys, N-SCALE is rapidly growing in popularity.
The models are almost half of HO/OO and as a result you can fit a lot more tracks and scenes in the same space as these scales.
N generally the scale is 1:160 or 2mm to the foot. Track width is 9mm. N stands for Ni
This was the predecessor to the N scale, being a 9.5mm gauge. Virtually gone now. The name of this scale seems to be a logical step from O to OO and then OOO scale.
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Most of the gauge of the OOO was from Lone Star Locos, a range of locomotives made in Great Britain.
They ran on a metal track closer to 8.5mm in diameter. Some electric-powered models were later developed, but these are relatively rare today
The 1:48 scale O scale trains and accessories are quite large. Most people associate this scale with toys
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