Map Of The 13 Colonies With Cities – Traditionally, when we tell the story of “colonial America,” we’re talking about the English colonies along the east coast. This history is incomplete – when the English began to establish colonies in earnest, there were many French, Spanish, Dutch and even Russian colonial outposts in the Americas – but the history of these 13 colonies (New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island , New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia) is significant. It was these colonies that united to form the United States.
16th century England was a troubled place. Because they could make more money selling wool than selling food, many of the nation’s landowners turned farmers’ fields into pasture for sheep. This led to food shortages. At the same time, many farmers lost their jobs.
Map Of The 13 Colonies With Cities
The 16th century was also the age of mercantilism, a highly competitive economic philosophy that pushed European nations to acquire as many colonies as possible. As a result, the English colonies in North America were largely business enterprises. They offered England’s surplus population a way out and (in some cases) more religious freedom from England, but their main purpose was to make money for their sponsors.
Colonies 1750 Map
In 1606, King James I divided the Atlantic coast in half, giving the southern half to the London Company (later the Virginia Company) and the northern half to the Plymouth Company.
The first English settlement in North America had actually been established some 20 years earlier, in 1587, when a group of settlers (91 men, 17 women and nine children) led by Sir Walter Raleigh settled on Roanoke Island. Mysteriously, by 1590 the Roanoke colony had completely disappeared. To this day, historians do not know what happened to its inhabitants.
In 1606, a few months after James I issued his charter, the Company of London sent 144 men to Virginia in three ships: the Godspeed, the Discovery, and the Susan Constant. They reached Chesapeake Bay in the spring of 1607 and sailed about 60 miles up the James River where they built a settlement they named Jamestown.
The settlers of Jamestown fell on hard times: they were so busy finding gold and other extractable resources that they could barely support themselves. Once the Virginia settlers learned how to grow tobacco in 1616, it seemed that the colony would survive. The first enslaved African came to Virginia in 1619.
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In 1632 the English crown granted Cecilius Calvert, second Lord of Baltimore, about 12 million acres of land at the head of the Chesapeake Bay. Named after Queen Maryland, this colony was similar to Virginia in many ways. Its landowners produced tobacco on large plantations that depended on the labor of indentured and (later) enslaved laborers.
But unlike Virginia’s founder, Lord Baltimore was Catholic and hoped his colony would be a refuge for his persecuted co-religionists. Maryland became known for its policy of religious tolerance for all.
The first English immigrants to the New England colonies were a small group of Puritan separatists, later called the Pilgrims, who arrived in Plymouth in 1620 to found the Plymouth Colony. Ten years later, a wealthy syndicate called the Massachusetts Bay Company sent a much larger (and more liberal) group of Puritans to found another settlement in Massachusetts. With the help of the local Aborigines, the settlers began farming, fishing and hunting, and Massachusetts prospered.
As the settlements in Massachusetts expanded, they formed new colonies in New England. The Puritans, thinking that Massachusetts was not pious enough, founded the colonies of Connecticut and New Haven (the two joined in 1665). Meanwhile, the Puritans, finding Massachusetts too restrictive, founded the colony of Rhode Island, where everyone—including Jews—enjoyed complete “liberty in religious matters.” North of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, a handful of adventurous settlers formed the New Hampshire Colony.
Early American 13 Colonies
In 1664, King Charles II gave his brother James, Duke of York, the territory between New England and Virginia, much of which was already occupied by Dutch traders and landowners known as Protectors. Soon the English occupied Dutch New Netherland and renamed it New York.
Most of the Dutch (as well as Belgian Flemish and Walloons, French Huguenots, Scandinavians and Germans) who lived there stayed there. This made New York one of the most diverse and prosperous colonies in the New World.
In 1680 the King granted 45,000 square miles of land west of the Delaware River to William Penn, a Quaker who owned large tracts of land in Ireland. Penn’s possessions in North America became the colony of Penn’s Woods or Pennsylvania.
People from all over Europe immigrated there, attracted by the fertile soil and religious tolerance that Penn promised. Like their Puritan counterparts in New England, most of these immigrants paid for the colonies themselves—they were not indentured servants—and had enough money to settle upon arrival. As a result, Pennsylvania soon became a prosperous and relatively equal place.
Which Were The 13 Colonies Of The United States?| 13 Original States
In contrast, the Carolina colony, an area stretching south from Virginia to Florida and west to the Pacific Ocean, was much less cosmopolitan. Hardy peasants fought in the northern half. In the southern half, planters dominated vast tracts of land that produced corn, timber, beef and pork, and—since the 1690s—rice.
These Carolinas had close ties to the English planter colony on the Caribbean island of Barbados, which relied heavily on African slave labor and many were themselves involved in the slave trade. As a result, slavery played an important role in the development of the Carolina colony. (Split into North Carolina and South Carolina in 1729.)
Inspired by the need to create a reserve between South Carolina and the Spanish settlements in Florida, Englishman James Oglethorpe founded the colony of Georgia in 1732. In many ways, Georgia’s development mirrored that of South Carolina.
In 1700 there were about 250,000 European settlers and enslaved Africans in the English North American colonies. In 1775, on the eve of the revolution, there were about 2.5 million. The colonists did not have much in common, but they could unite and fight for their independence.
The 13 Colonies Label Each Of The States/colonies.
The American Revolutionary War (1775-1783) was sparked when American colonists resented issues such as taxation without representation, embodied in acts such as the Stamp Act and the Townshend Acts. Rising tensions came to a head during the battles of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775, when “the shot was heard round the world.”
It was not without warning. The Boston Massacre of March 5, 1770 and the Boston Tea Party of December 16, 1773 showed the growing dissatisfaction of the colonists with British rule in the colonies.
The Declaration of Independence, issued on July 4, 1776, listed the reasons why the Founding Fathers felt compelled to begin with the reign of King George III. and break up parliament to found a new nation. In September of that year, the Continental Congress declared the “United Colonies” of America to be the “United States of America.”
France entered the war on the side of the colonists in 1778 and helped the Continental Army defeat the British at the Battle of Yorktown in 1781. The Treaty of Paris was signed on September 3, 1783, ending the American Revolution and granting independence to the original 13 colonies.
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